* welcome *
* what's new *
* introduction *
* tt-references online *
* background reading *
* loebner prize contest *
* talk to some programs *
* people *
* interesting links *
* about this page *
download the story of the Turing Test
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This page contains all the online information that
I could find concerning the Turing Test.
It is, and will always be under construction.
I would like to remark at the outset that this is not
a page about Alan Turing himself. For more
information on Alan Turing visit
The Alan Turing homepage
If you have questions or comments, know of resources
that belong here or have detected broken links on
this page please e-mail me.
I hope you find this page useful.
Hex wrote: +++ Hi Mum is Testing +++ MELON MELON MELON +++ Out of Cheese Error +++ !!!!! +++ Mr Jelly! Mr Jelly!
"Hex seems perfectly able to work out anything purely to do with numbers but when it tries anything else, it does this," said Ponder.
--- Terry Pratchett, Hogfather.
Coming soon: Want more on the posters? I wrote a review of them for the journal Minds and Machines...
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FROM THE IMITATION GAME TO THE TURING TEST
The Turing Test was introduced by Alan M. Turing (1912-1954) as "the
imitation game" in his 1950 article (now available online) Computing
Machinery and Intelligence (Mind, Vol. 59, No. 236, pp. 433-460)
which he so boldly began by the following sentence:
This test has been subject to different kinds of criticism and has been at the heart of many discussions in AI, philosophy and cognitive science for the past 50 years.
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Objections to the Turing test: Is the Brain a Digital Computer? Searle's Chinese Room
Robert French's paper: Subcognition and the Limits of the Turing Test pdf (Mind 99(393) 53-65,1990; reprinted in P. Millican & A. Clark (eds.). Machines and Thought: The Legacy of Alan Turing Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press (1996).) One of the most important arguments against the Turing Test is that it only provides a test for human intelligence.
Stevan Harnad's paper: The Turing Test Is Not A Trick: Turing Indistinguishability Is A Scientific Criterion. (SIGART Bulletin 3(4),9-10, October 1992)
Another paper by Stevan Harnad: Other bodies, Other minds: A machine incarnation of an old philosophical problem. Minds and Machines, Vol. 1, pp. 43-54.
One more selected reading from Harnad Minds, Machines and Turing: The Indistinguishability of Indistinguishables Journal of Logic, Language, and Information 9(4):425-445.
Paper by Larry Hauser: Reaping the Whirlwind: Reply to Harnad's `Other Bodies, Other Minds' Minds and Machines, Vol. 3, No. 2 (May, 1993), pp. 219-238.
Technical Report by Phillip G. Bradford and Michael Wollowski The Formalization of the Turing Test, available in postscript and pdf. 1994.
NEW! By Bruce Edmonds:The Constructability of Artificial Intelligence (as defined by the Turing Test), Journal of Logic Language and Information, 9:419-424.
NEW! By Judith Donath: Being Real, html format. To appear in Goldberg, K. (ed.) The Robot in the Garden: Telerobotics and Telepistemology in the Age of the Internet, MIT Press
Paper by Jason Eisner Cognitive Science and the Search for Intelligence , pdf format. Paper presented to the Socratic Society, University of Cape Town, South Africa, 1991.
Blay Whitby's paper: Why The Turing Test is AI's Biggest Blind Alley Whitby argues that AI should not be too distracted into direct copying of human performance and methods.
Summary of a talk by Pat Hayes: Abandoning the Turing Test (postscript)
A paper by Jean Lessegue: What kind of Turing Test did Turing have in Mind? (Tekhnema, 3, 37-58, 1996)
An essay by David Barberi: The Ultimate Turing Test
WIRED Article by Charles Platt: What's It Mean to be Human, Anyway?
WIRED Article by Richard S. Wallace: The Lying Game
An essay by Warren Sack: Replaying Turing's Imitation Game Paper presented at the panel "Nets and Internets" at Console-ing Passions: Television, Video and Feminism, April 25-28, 1
Stephen J. Cowley and Karl F. MacDorman's paper, Simulating Conversations: The Communion Game (AI&Society, 9, 116-137, 1995)
CogPrints Electronic Archive Many relevant papers on psychology, neuroscience, linguistics and computer science can be found here.
You can also take a look at the Simon Laven Page for chatterbot related books and papers (as well as an excellent chatterbot resource, see below)
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The Turing Test and Chinese Room Experiment A nice, concise page by Larry Hauser describing the Turing Test and the Chinese Room of Searle.
Minds, Machines and Searle Stevan Harnad (Minds, Machines and Searle. Journal of Theoretical and Experimental Artificial Intelligence, 1989, 1: 5-25.
Artificial Intelligence: A Philosophical Introduction by Jack Copeland. Oxford: Blackwell, 1993.
Minds, Machines and Godel J.R. Lucas (Philosophy, XXXVI, 1961, pp.112-127)
Minds, Brains and Science John Searle (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass. ,1984)
Thinking Computers and Virtual Persons Eric Dietrich (ed.)
Android Epistemology Ken Ford, Clark Glymour, and Patrick J. Hayes (eds.) Menlo Park, CA: AAAI/The MIT Press.
Alan Turing: The Enigma Andrew Hodges (ISBN 0-09-911641-3 Vintage, Random Century, London.)
Paper by Larry Hauser: Why Isn't My Pocket Calculator a Thinking Thing Minds and Machines, Vol. 3, No. 1 (February, 1993), pp. 3-10.
Dr. Hugh Loebner started the annual Loebner Prize
competition. A $100,000 prize is offered to the author of the first
computer program to pass an unrestricted Turing test.
Jason Hutchens' MegaHAL page contains some fun transcripts and good information. Hutchens' programs participated in the Loebner contests in 1996, 97 and 98 and one of them won the prize in 1996.
Robby Garner, Robitron has also participated in the contest several times and is the winner of the 1998 and 1999 Loebner prizes. His site contains a lot of cool information and links.
Michael Mauldin's paper: Chatterbots, Tinymuds, And The Turing Test: Entering The Loebner Prize Competition This paper describes the development of a program and its performance on the first three Loebner Prize competitions.
Stuart Shieber's paper: Lessons from a Restricted Turing Test CACM, volume 37, number 6, 1994.
Hugh Loebner's response to Stuart Shieber: In Response
A human confederate's perspective: Tracy Quan tells her story.
Guardian article: Oct 6, 2001 - It's the thought that counts
NY Times article: March 18, 1999 - Look what's talking
TALK TO THEM
And you MUST see The Simon Laven Page probably the most comprehensive chatterbot site on the web...
Jabberwock, the winner of Loebner 2003
Jabberwacky, a bot with character
The CHAT Natural Language System (Loebner 94, 95)
ELIZA, the oldest girl around.
JULIA was a participant in Loebner 94.
ALICE is another chatty girl. Beware, this one spreads gossip! Winner of 2000 and 2001 Loebner prizes.
SPENCE'S, a virtual bar... Here, you can talk to Spence or to Erin, his niece who is also the bartender.
MITBOLEL A customizable Java chatbot. You can even put Mitbolel on your own web page!
THOUGHT TREASURE The approach here is a bit different. Thought Treasure has some "world knowledge" (an extensive concept hierarchy). This is an evolving system, latest version available for download.
MeBOT You need a Java compatible browser to talk to MeBot.
BRIAN, an 18 year old college student (3rd place in Loebner 1998)
MIMIC Help him learn talking, he's willing to learn.
Mr. MIND Try to convince him that you are not a computer.
DR ABUSE An ELIZA-based program that talks in Spanish
ELOISA You want to chat in Italian? Visit her.
Selmer Bringsjord This site contains information on his books and some online papers and presentations.
Rodney Brooks Here you can find out about Brooks' research on building intelligent robots.
David Chalmers A comprehensive site that contains many useful resources on the philosophy of mind as well as information on Chalmers' works on consciousness
Jack Copeland His personal page contains online papers as well as links to his Turing-related projects and conferences
Daniel Dennett Here, you can find a lot of papers by Dennett in html format.
Robert French Contains many papers of the author, downloadable in pdf format.
Stevan Harnad E-Prints on Cognitive Psychology. Many relevant papers online.
Larry Hauser Contains numerous online papers by Hauser. Also an excellent philosophy of mind resource.
Patrick Hayes Information on his research, although not too many papers online.
John R. Lucas Papers on various topics, online.
John McCarthy Personal homepage with various links to online publications.
Donald Michie Personal homepage containing full list of publications, but none are online.
Marvin Minsky Personal homepage with some online publications.
Aaron Sloman His personal page with some online resources.
NEW!Turing Tournament at the California Institute of Technology.
Preliminary Turing Test Analysis Interesting paper drawing a parallel between the Turing Test and GIS/spatial technologies research. Not really relevant to our topic, though.
How my program passed the Turing Test by Mark Humphrys.
MAW'97 Turing Test page This page was prepared within the context of Math Awareness Week '97.
Lecture slides This and the following few slides give a nice, concise summary of the Turing Test.
Characters, improvisation and ... Lots and lots of links.
Botspot Go there for all bot-related stuff on the net.
Psycholoquy A refereed international, interdisciplinary electronic journal.
Created April 6, 1998
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