SPM Papers

Statistical Parametric Mapping


Written by members of the Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience

Spatial registration and normalisation of images

Friston KJ, Ashburner J, Poline JB, Frith CD, Heather JD & Frackowiak RSJ (1995)
Human Brain Mapping 2:165-189


This paper concerns the spatial and intensity transformations that map one image onto another. We present a general technique that facilitates non-linear spatial (stereotactic) normalisation and image realignment. This technique minimises the sum of squares between two images following non-linear spatial deformations and transformations of the voxel (intensity) values. The spatial and intensity transformations are obtained simultaneously, and explicitly, using a least squares solution and a series of linearising devices. The approach is completely noninteractive (automatic), non-linear and non iterative. It can be applied in any number of dimensions. Various applications are considered, including the realignment of functional MRI time-series, linear (affine) and non-linear spatial normalisation of PET and structural MRI images, the coregistration of PET to structural MRI and, implicitly, the conjoining of PET and MRI to obtain high resolution functional images.

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