Statistical Parametric Mapping refers to the construction and assessment of spatially extended statistical processes used to test hypotheses about functional imaging data. These ideas have been instantiated in software that is called SPM.
The SPM software package has been designed for the analysis of brain imaging data sequences. The sequences can be a series of images from different cohorts, or time-series from the same subject. The current release is designed for the analysis of fMRI, PET, SPECT, EEG and MEG.
The best starting point is to read the introductory article on SPM available here. You could then download the latest version of the software and a data set to analyse. Step-by-step instructions for this analysis are available in the SPM manual.
If you're new to imaging, perhaps an epoch fMRI data set would be appropriate. The data sets are provided with instructions on how to use SPM to analyse them. These tutorials therefore give practical instructions on how to implement the various methodologies. Our methods have been written up in books, technical reports and journal papers which are available from our Online Bibliography. This groups documentation according to year, category, author and keyword.
If you're looking for help on a particular topic you can find the relevant papers from the Online Bibliography. Alternatively, you can search the SPM pages using the search facility that appears at the bottom of every page. Also browse and search the SPM WikiBook and please feel free to edit it if you can. If you still can't find what you need, you could send an email to the SPM Email list, which gives you access to our community of experts.
You should also be aware of the many courses on SPM. If there isn't one in your country this year then there's always the annual short course in London. Finally, once you've mastered SPM you can learn about the various extensions provided by experts in the wider community.
Good luck !
July 2012: Videos recorded at the May 2012 SPM Course for M/EEG are now freely available online.
November 2011: Videos recorded at the May 2011 SPM Course for fMRI/PET/VBM are now freely available online.
April 2009: SPM8 is a major update to the SPM software, containing substantial theoretical, algorithmic, structural and interface enhancements over previous versions (more info).
November 2006: This book provides the background and methodology for the analysis of all types of brain imaging data, from functional magnetic resonance imaging to magnetoencephalography (more info).
The Statistical Parametric Mapping approach is voxel based: